Between the Cracks aims to throw light on a complex issue which affects a large number of children and young people disproportionately, many of whom are already at risk of low attainment, and are often vulnerable in other multiple, complex ways.
Moving school during the school year may not always catch the headlines, but it matters a great deal to the large number of children who are admitted in this way, especially those who do so many times.
The numbers moving within the school year is far higher than is often realised – equivalent to two thirds of the number that move from primary to secondary school at the standard time for transition. As our data
shows in section four, around 60 percent of these children already face significant disadvantage: they are eligible for the pupil premium or have a special need.
Disproportionate numbers come from ethnic minorities
or are in the care system. Moreover, in-year moves are more likely to be clustered in lower attaining schools and in more disadvantaged localities.
Layer upon layer of additional challenges are laid on top of these pupils because of their background, circumstances and the schools they attend.
Part of this is further multiplied by the process of moving school, which leads to disadvantaged pupils more often than not ending up in schools with lower levels of attainment.
Independent commissioners providing a link between central government and groups of schools are key to ensuring better educational outcomes for young people.
This review of the literature maps social class inequality across educational sectors, and the various government and philanthropic initiatives that have sought to tackle the issue of social justice.